In 1882, the father of American surgery, William Steward Halstead (1852-1922), introduced the first radical mastectomy (the breast tissue underlying chest muscle and the lymph nodes are removed). Until the mid 1970s, 90% of women with breast cancer were treated with this procedure.
Carvalho, Lucia, RN/MSN, and James A. Stewart, MD. 2009. The Everything Health Guide to Living with Breast Cancer. Avon, MA: Adams Media